exercises due: calendar week 40 (last lesson of the week)


A: Words:

  • learn the rest of the list. Yes, yes, yes, I know. Buuuuut: It's only 30 words and you know most of them anyway.
  • do the "Word formation" exercise below. If you know a word, you can often very easily use it in different contexts by forming verbs, nouns or adjectives from it. This exercise helps you to practise that.

 


Word formation

 

Complete each sentence below with a noun, verb or adjective formed from one of the words on the right. You may need a dictionary to find the correct words. Copy the complete (!) sentences into your folders.

  • consumption
  • contribute
  • emission
  • extinction
  • pollute
  • reduce
  • reverse
  • threat

example:

People are CONSUMING oil much faster than the earth can produce it. Oil is not a sustainable resource.

  1. Thanks to new filtering systems, air_______________ is no longer a problem near modern power stations.
  2. Of all the factors that _______________ the existance of life on earth, climate change is maybe the biggest problem.
  3. Scientists estimate that three species of plants and animals become _______________ every hour.
  4. Unfortunaly, some of the countries that are the biggest polluters have not agreed to a _______________ of greenhouse gas emissions.
  5. The biggest _______________ to greenhouse gases from private housholds coms from travelling.
  6. Factories need to be more efficient and they need to _______________ less carbon dioxide.
  7. Some people are still hoping for a _______________ of the trend towards a warmer climate.

 


B: Viewing

  • Watch the excerpt of the famous (well at least it was famous back when it was released) Al Gore film "An Inconvenient Truth". In it, he explains climate change and it's effects on the world and on us. Then do the following excercise (written!)
  • Read the text below on rethorical strategies.
  • Which rethorical strategies can you identify? Give examples.

The university of Purdue in the US is famous for its communication department. Not surprisingly you can also find good texts on communication on their website. With regards to persuation, they state that "there are three types of rhetorical appeals, or persuasive strategies, used in arguments to support claims and respond to opposing arguments. A good argument will generally use a combination of all three appeals to make its case.

 

Logos or the appeal to reason relies on logic or reason. Logos often depends on the use of inductive or deductive reasoning.

 

Inductive reasoning takes a specific representative case or facts and then draws generalizations or conclusions from them. Inductive reasoning must be based on a sufficient amount of reliable evidence. In other words, the facts you draw on must fairly represent the larger situation or population.[...]

 

Deductive reasoning begins with a generalization and then applies it to a specific case. The generalization you start with must have been based on a sufficient amount of reliable evidence. [...]

 

Ethos or the ethical appeal is based on the character, credibility, or reliability of the writer. There are many ways to establish good character and credibility as an author:

  • Use only credible, reliable sources to build your argument and cite those sources properly.
  • Respect the reader by stating the opposing position accurately.
  • Establish common ground with your audience. Most of the time, this can be done by acknowledging values and beliefs shared by those on both sides of the argument.
  • If appropriate for the assignment, disclose why you are interested in this topic or what personal experiences you have had with the topic.
  • Organize your argument in a logical, easy to follow manner. You can use the Toulmin method of logic or a simple pattern such as chronological order, most general to most detailed example, earliest to most recent example, etc.
  • Proofread the argument. Too many careless grammar mistakes cast doubt on your character as a writer.

Pathos, or emotional appeal, appeals to an audience's needs, values, and emotional sensibilities. Argument emphasizes reason, but used properly there is often a place for emotion as well. Emotional appeals can use sources such as interviews and individual stories to paint a more legitimate and moving picture of reality or illuminate the truth. For example, telling the story of a single child who has been abused may make for a more persuasive argument than simply the number of children abused each year because it would give a human face to the numbers.

 

Only use an emotional appeal if it truly supports the claim you are making, not as a way to distract from the real issues of debate. An argument should never use emotion to misrepresent the topic or frighten people."

source: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/academic_writing/establishing_arguments/rhetorical_strategies.html)

 

 



C: Grammar

 

"If we don't do anything about the problem of climate change, our children will have to pay the price."

 

Now, which Conditional Sentence was that again? One? Two? Three? Check out the rules section and then do the following excercises:

 

Conditional Sentences

CLICK HERE and do excercises 1, 2 and 4. For ex.1 you don't have to copy the sentences. For the rest, you do :)